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Pemetaan Budaya




The Orang Sungai ethnic is mostly found in Kinabatangan District in Sabah Sandakan Division on the east coast and in the Kudat Division in the north. The ethnic is easily identified by their small or slanted eyes with quite unpointed nose and fair skin akin to Chinese descendents.

To the Muslims there are customs that are contrary to Islam. They have assimilated the Malay customs and been practicing them for long, like the marriage custom. Mixed marriage has also influenced their culture and customs.


The family on the man side sends a representative or two to the house of the girl family to enquire about the girlstatus whether she is still single or engaged or married. If still single then the representative informs the girl family that the man family will pay a visit to seek the hands in marriage at a date to be fixed.


Normally, both sides appoint their own representative as spokeperson for the marriage discussion. These representatives are experienced in marriage custom.

The proposal ceremiony begins with the presentation of the pengawang basaro (ice breaker of RM20 cash, a machete with its cover, a strand of metal for fencing, a ring as well as a beg of man attire to be left in the girl house during the engagement period. Apart from being as a sign of respect and high level of courtesy, these items also signify the man big intention. Apart from the pengawang basaro, the badung (expenses for the reception for the engagement) is also handed over to the host. If agreement is achieved, including the amount of ssur (dowry) and marriage gift to the future bride are identified, then the penando (a sign of agreement), normally a gold engagement ring, is inserted into the girl finger by the representative.


All the requests of the girl side are handed over to them in a ceremony full of customs and harmony. Both sides make statements by referring to the ssur requests agreed previously. Normally, all the dowries are in crafts form in fine artistic arrangement placed in trays. Usually, in the same function the girl family reciprocates the dowry trays as a sign of affection and happiness. The number of trays reciprocated is usually more than that of the man.


This ceremony is held separately for the two sides on the eve of the marriage solemnization. The groom hands over henna set to the bride for this occasion. The evening is made merrier by holding ceremonies for babies like the weighing in and head shaving, as well as reading the Quran and singing religious songs.

According to abstentism of the Buludupi tribe of this ethnic, the newly-wed couple is encouraged to stay awake the whole night to avoid experiencing bad dreams.


These ceremonies are held at the bride house based on Islamic teachings. Sometimes the okab lawing (opening the door) custom is requested by the bride family after the marriage is solemnized. Then prayers are recited followed by the groom shaking hands with the guests, after which he is ushered to the bride room for the pengawang ambat-ambat opening the fence) custom. The number of fences is according to the intelligence of the newl-wed bestman and bridesmaid.

The penemmil (blessing of the couple ceremony is held in the couple room, followed by the menemo (feeding) custom whereby the couple is fed with white rice and egg by their family representative. Then the couple is made to lie on the tarugan (bed) three times consecutively. After all is over the couple leaves the room for the sitting on the dias ceremony.

The couple sits on the dias like a King and Queen of the day to be witnessed by guests. Then the blessing of the couple begins with sprinkling blessed water on the couple by the families of both sides and important people of closed families to signify acceptance of the marriage. This ceremony is usually repeated on the third and seventh evenings.

The couple is forbidden to step on soil before the seventh day of their marriage. During this abstentism period the couple attends advice sessions by an experienced spiritual leader, and the Mak Andam who dresses up the bride for the wedding.


When the time comes the husband brings back his wife to be introduced officially to his family. The penemmil (blessing the couple) ceremony is held before they enter the compound or the house, with the couple, in turns, place their feet into a copper tray filled with traditional mixtures.

As they enter the house the couple is sprinkled with begkas blaning (yellow rice) as blessings. The bride receives pengennik (special gift) from the groomâ family to signify affection and acceptance as a new family member. A spiritual leader leads the thanksgiving prayer recitel at the end of the ceremony.

Jabatan Kebudayaan dan Kesenian Negara, Sabah

Kompleks JKKN Sabah,
KM 4, Jalan Penampang,
88200 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah.
Tel : 088 237052
Faks : 088 242 052


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